Fake news, The Fake News Notes, Writing

Notes on attention, fake news and noise #2: On the non-linear value of speech and freedom of dialogue or attention

It has become more common to denounce the idea that more speech means better democracy. Commentators, technologists and others have come out to say that they were mistaken – that their belief that enabling more people to speak would improve democracy was wrong, or at the very least simplistic. It is worth analyzing what this really means, since it is a reversal of one of the fundamental hopes the information society vision promised. The hope was this: that technology would democratize speech and that a multitude of voices would disrupt and displace existing, incumbent hierarchies of power. If the printing press meant that access to knowledge exploded in western society, the Internet meant that the production of knowledge, views and opinions now was almost free and frictionless: anyone could become a publisher, a writer, a speaker and an opinion maker. To a large extent this is what has happened. Anyone who wants to express themselves today can fire up their computer, comment on a social network, write a blogpost or tweet and share their words with whoever is willing to listen – and therein lies the crux. We have, historically, always focused on speech because the scarcity we fought was one of voice: it was hard to speak, to publish, to share your opinion. But the reality is that free speech or free expression just form one point in a relationship – for free speech to be worth anything someone has to listen. Free speech alone is the freedom of…

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Fake news, Philosophy, Technology, The Fake News Notes

Notes on attention, fake news and noise #1: scratching the surfaces

What is opinion made from? This seems a helpful question start off a discussion about disinformation, fake news and similar challenges that we face as a society. I think the answer is surprisingly simple: opinion is ultimately made from attention. In order to form an opinion we need to pay attention to issues, and to questions we are facing as a society. Opinion should not be equated with emotion, even if it certainly also draws on emotion (to which we also pay attention), but also needs reasoned view in order to become opinion. Our opinions change, also through the allocation of attention, when we decide to review the reasons underlying them and the emotions motivating us to hold them. You could argue that this is a grossly naive and optimistic view of opinion, and that what forms opinion is fear, greed, ignorance and malice – and that opinions are just complex emotions, nothing more, and that they have become even more so in our modern society. That view, however, leads nowhere. The conclusion for someone believing that is to throw themselves exasperated into intellectual and physical exile. I prefer a view that is plausible and also allows for the strengthening of democracy. A corollary of the abovementioned is that democracy is also made from attention – from the allocated time we set aside to form our opinions and contribute to democracy. I am, of course, referring to an idealized and ideal version of democracy in which citizenship is an accomplishment…

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